The Religion of Jesus requires us to understand ...

The Relation of Jesus to His Disciples

Toyohiko Kagawa: The relation of Jesus to His disciples was strangely different from that assumed by other educators. In the first place, Jesus had no school nor special text-books, and, of course, no laboratory. His disciples were very few in number, and Jesus trained them, sometimes one by one and sometimes in groups, sometimes in the house and sometimes in the great classroom of Nature, so that, later, on this small and illiterate group of disciples became a formidable power. Jesus said, "If two of you agree on earth about what they shall pray for, it will be given them of my Father who is in heaven" (Matt. 18:20). The hundred and twenty disciples of Jesus who assembled in Jerusalem after His death had power enough to overthrow the world.

It is often said that the only inheritors of the Russian Revolution are the 150,000 Communists. When Europe collapses, the only group possessing power enough to carry on will be, I believe, none other than a group of Jesus' disciples. Every other group which has pursued self-interest and selfish desires will be ruined. It will be left to those who do not depend on bread nor on material things to take the lead. It is important therefore to study the relation between Jesus and His disciples from the point of view of its educational and social significance.

After the social revolution must come an educational revolution. But education, up to the present, even though it has made use of various projects, has been unexpectedly powerless and unable to rebuild mankind. If the educational attitude of Jesus toward His disciples could once more be reduplicated in the present world, there would certainly come a great educational revolution.

Jesus formed a group of disciples and gave special attention to their education. And among them He chose twelve to be with Him in a very special and intimate personal contact. He commissioned them to propagate His teachings, and gave them authority to drive out evil spirits and power to heal the sick.

Jesus thought that a pupil is one who should be taught by his teacher. It is said that in Russian schools to-day the pupils elect the teachers! [G. D. H.?] Cole of England also claims that the self-government of the school should go along with that of the factory, and that in these days of social democracy, pupils can claim their right to exercise authority over their teachers. But, however fully the day of democracy arrives, there still must exist some sort of authority. Jesus expected His disciples to grow up to be like their teacher.

In Osaka the relation of the teachers of actors to their pupils is very strict. It is said that the pupils must measure the distance between the teacher and themselves, and walk behind them keeping a definite space between them. Witness the saying, "Stand three feet behind the teacher and do not step on his shadow." Jesus, of course, did not say any such extreme thing, but He made it a necessity for His pupils not to forget that they were pupils, no matter how democratic they were. On the other hand, Jesus, in contrast to modern teachers, was very generous with His pupils. "I tell you, whoever believes in Me will do such things as I do, and greater things than these will he do." (John 14:12) That is, He said that the pupils will be able to do a similar work or a greater work than the teacher.

Some teachers knock down their pupils when the latter become great. In Ibsen's The Master Builder there is a story of a pessimistic master carpenter who threw himself down from a tower of a church. Such will be the end of those, who cannot make way for the younger generation to advance. But Jesus said that His pupils might not only come up to His level, but that they might become greater than Himself. We have here sufficient evidence, with this one noble idea of His, to believe in Jesus' personality. What a great and generous educator Jesus was!

Jesus selected apostles from among many disciples, but after the treachery of Judas Iscariot it became necessary to require some conditions for being an apostle. "So one of the men who has been associated with us all the time that the Lord Jesus moved among us, from His baptism by John to the time when He was caught up from us, must join us as a witness to His resurrection." (Acts 1:22) That is, it became one of the qualifications of a disciple that he should have been a follower since the time of John the Baptist's movement.

The movement of John the Baptist was a very solemn thing to the people. In the Antiquities of the Jews, by Josephus, the movement of John the Baptist was written of in detail. Jesus Christ at first joined this religious movement. So among His disciples there were many who had been disciples of John.

The number of the apostles of Jesus was twelve. Apollos, a native of Alexandria, famous in the time of the apostles, had also twelve disciples. Perhaps it was a custom in those days to limit the number of disciples to twelve. It seemed as though there was some tradition connected with it. The number of Jesus' disciples gradually increased, and finally became a hundred and twenty. Besides these, Jesus had many more disciples, but they were mostly scattered some time or another.

What kind of people were the disciples of Jesus who were elected as apostles? Out of twelve it seems that seven were fishermen. At all events it is expressly stated that four of them - Simon, Andrew, James, and John - were fishermen, but besides these, in John, chapter twenty-one, it is written that seven disciples were fishing (John 21:2). From this it seems that more than half of the twelve apostles were fishermen.

Matthew was a revenue officer. To-day in China the method of tax-collection is by contract. Each different administrative boundary has its red flag on the frontier, and there they collect the taxes. It was so in Judea in Jesus' time. For instance, in Capernaum, the administrative boundary between Antipas and Philip, there was a customs-house, and Matthew was an officer in it. Also in Jericho there was a customs-house, and Zacchaeus was the chief officer in this revenue-supervision office.

Simon of Canaan was one of the Zealots and a patriot who worked for the anti-taxation movement. Among the twelve only Judas Iscariot was not a Galilean. Among the twelve there were three groups of brothers and one of friends. That is, Simon and Andrew, James and John, James and Thaddeus, sons of Alpheus, were brothers to one another, and Philip and Bartholomew were friends. It was very good to be able to follow Jesus like this, together with brothers and friends. It is said that the family of Zebedee was related to Jesus Christ. If this is true, the brothers of a related family all became his disciples.

Peter had his wife and children. His wife was a famous woman. According to the Ecclesiastical History by Eusebius, she seemed to have done evangelistic work all her life alongside of her husband. She seems to have been a woman of good reputation in the Church in the early days. Paul wrote also that Peter had had a wife. "Have we not a right to take a Christian wife about with us like Cephas?" (1 Cor. 9:5). Jesus must have stayed in the house of Peter in Capernaum very frequently. It is said that perhaps it was in this house that He took up the children in His arms and said, "Of such is the kingdom of heaven," (Matt. 19:14) when His disciples were disputing which one of them was the greatest. People sometimes draw Peter's face to look like a very old man, but he seems to have been about the same age as Jesus. It seems that among the twelve only Peter had a wife. Probably the marriage feast in Cana was the wedding of some one of the disciples, but it is not known whose it was.

Confucius selected ten sages from his many disciples, and probably Gautama and Socrates had their intimate disciples of about the same number. It was a custom of those days to have disciples. The Pharisees, and John the Baptist also, had their disciples. And teachers even took care of the material needs of their disciples. But for the religious disciples, whose Rabbi had no occupation (by which to earn), it must have been hard to expect the teacher to pay the cost of living. But just as pilgrims in Shikoku can get a place to stay overnight merely by mentioning the name of Kobo Daishi - from the fear that exists among the people that if they reject the pilgrims heartlessly they may be being cruel to Kobo Daishi - so in Judea there was a custom to treat religious teachers especially well.

There is a story in the Bible about someone who welcomed a traveller and found that he was an angel [Lot, Gen 19]. But even though this was so, the religion of Jesus was a little out of the ordinary, from the point of view of the popular idea of that time; in short, it was heresy; for this reason He was not welcomed by all the people, nor could He give satisfaction to His disciples.

To be a disciple of Jesus one needs a great resolution. It is a mistake to become a disciple of Jesus expecting to be famous thereby, or to become a religious success. It is always a road of hardship and persecution. There are occasionally some who reach success socially or become famous because they believe in a given religion, but this is never the ordinary case. If one is trampled on and considered worthless because he believes in Christianity, he may rather be the one who walks the road of the true reconstruction of the world.

A man belonging to the intelligentsia came to Jesus and asked Him to make him a disciple. But Jesus, seeing that it was hard for a man who is accustomed to reading books and living in comfort to partake in a practical movement for religious propaganda, refused decisively and said, "Foxes have holes and wild birds have nests, but the Son of man has nowhere to lay His head." (Matt. 8:20) Also to the man who said, "Let me first go and bury my father," (Matt. 8:21) Jesus said, "Follow Me, and leave the dead to bury their own dead!" If you have not this resolution, you cannot be a disciple of Jesus. It may be that you will not be able to see your father on his death-bed. Christians of to-day are not enthusiastic enough.

Although it is not necessary to give up all economic life in order to follow Jesus, yet it must be admitted that there is some incompatibility between following Jesus and keeping hold of anything that belongs to the world. To follow Jesus really it is necessary to be ready to throw up the whole of your business or profession. Your business ought to become God's possession - that which belongs to God. At the very least you must have the resolution to offer your life to God if God requires it. You must offer God not ten per cent but one hundred per cent. It is at this point that the Japanese Church of to-day is cold and indifferent.

The wife of Juji Ishii, the founder of the Okayama Orphanage, heard once at a prayer meeting a suggestion that unless one offered to God everything, he could not be a disciple, and she recalled to her mind that she had one thing put away in a cabinet which she had thought she could not offer to God. It was a silk Obi (sash) of about ten pounds value, which her mother had woven specially for her. She had given up everything else, but could not let this one sash go out of her hand. But when she heard a voice, "Sell everything and follow Me" (Mark 10:31), she sold it at last, changed it into money, and gave the money to beggars who were at the end of the bridge in the town of Okayama one cold winter night. In Okayama there are many beggars together all the time because it is situated at the place where one crosses the sea to the Island of Shikoku. Just then the pastor of the church happened to pass that way, and she told him that at last she had offered the treasured sash, because she had been told at the prayer meeting that unless one offers everything he cannot be a disciple of Jesus.

There are some who say that we, who must live a civilized life, need more of a taste for the arts. And that, on that account, we have nothing left to offer to God. But can you really follow Jesus if you remain like that? How can you say that you are a disciple of Jesus without offering your hundred per cent? How can you attempt to work for true social reformation! Return Caesar's to Caesar, and man's to man. If you make money by some invention, give it all back to the people in the society which enabled you to earn. Without paying any fee we have all been admitted into a wonderful world; and if, in addition, we come into touch with the love of Jesus, how can we remain unmoved? After all, we entered the world naked, and therefore we ought to leave it in the same condition.

I cannot admire a man who, while calling himself a disciple of Jesus, yet says he must have a cultured life, and wants to live in luxury in a big house. For His whole life Jesus wandered from village to village, spending His life on foot, and having no place to rest. Do we not need once more to return to Jesus?

From my experience in the Labor Movement, I know that if ten people unite, they can do a great thing. Jesus' disciples were only twelve in number, but they were able in a very short time to recover the movement of Jesus which seemed to have ended in defeat, and to make it a real triumph. We of to-day must realize that we are at an historical crisis. Do we intend to bring to Japan a revolution of blood, or the blessing of Jesus? If we offer our whole spirits and whole body to Jesus, God will certainly bless Japan.

Jesus said, "If you want to follow Me, deny yourself and take your cross and follow Me." (Matt. 16:24) He said "follow Me" four or five times in the Gospel of Mark alone. People of the world rarely say "follow me" very decidedly; so it is not to be wondered at that many people go astray. When we ask the scholars they only answer us that there are such and such theories, but they do not tell us anything decidedly. But Jesus said "follow Me."

Jesus told us to follow Him carrying the cross on our back, knowing the way is a way full of pains. That is the way to God. We must follow Jesus on this solid road. It is a mistake if you think it an easy path of flowers. It may be to look for a sick person wandering in a dark alley, or to take care of a dying patient in a hospital for infectious diseases, or to be a friend of lepers all your life, or, like Yoshinori Tokunaga, to lie in bed for sixteen years suffering from consumption, and in adverse circumstances to enjoy God's blessings. You must know that Jesus' road is a dark pass through a tunnel.

I think the nurses in the asylum for the aged, and nurses of the sick, are people to be especially respected. It is better to take care of children in the orphan asylum, but hard for those who take care of aged people who have but a few years left. Therein is the way of the Cross.

Can we know the way of true glory if we cannot endure the suffering of the Cross? Jesus' disciples must be those who serve other people. But Jesus called them unto Him and said, "Ye know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. Not so shall it be among you; but whosoever would become great among you shall be your minister; and whosoever would be first among you shall be your servant; even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto but to minister, and to give His life as a ransom for many." (Matt. 20:25-28)

To be a disciple of Jesus you must willingly - of your own accord - become a person of little importance. A young men's association of the village where I live, Shinikutagawa, has twenty-four members, and eighteen of them are members of the committee of management! As long as every member wants to be the president, or the manager, the young men's associations of Japan will not have real development.

In the Labor Movement, I myself always ask to be a clerk. I am intending to be a friend of children and the aged in the slums to the end of my life. Some people put me forward as a candidate for the office of mayor of Kobe, but I have no intention whatever to be either a mayor or a prime minister. But there are some people who instinctively want to be great men. Isn't it Russell who has said, "There are no very great men among prime ministers." Servants are really much more distinguished! However much a man is a prime minister, unless he has good under-officers, he cannot do anything.

Japanese government offices are notorious for everlasting sabotage - the "go slow" method of office work. The reason for this is that all the underlings consider themselves great men and nobody wants to play a subordinate part. But Jesus said that in the Kingdom of God he who does things which others do not like to do is greater than he who is served by others.

When the Labor Unions have public lectures in Osaka and Kobe, there are always full houses - two thousand in Tennoji Civic Auditorium, and four thousand in the Central Osaka Civic Auditorium. On such occasions there is always a group of young men who at such times willingly do the menial work and take charge of the geta (clogs).

About four years ago in Kwansei College there was a fine religious group; the president used to clean the lavatories secretly. The true value of Christianity is shown in doing menial and subordinate work willingly.

Disciples of Jesus must also have the spirit of loyalty. "Be loyal!" It is good to be loyal to the end to the principle of the society to which you belong. The people in the Middle Ages made it the most glorious thing to be obedient to a discipline of poverty, love, and obedience. But this is necessary not only for Franciscans but also for the Christian churches of to-day. I am a conservative in regard to good, and a radical in regard to evil! I want to hold on to every old thing that is good, while progressively eliminating the bad. It is deplorable that to-day, along with the shouts of "democracy," this spirit of loyalty is fading away. Loyalty and democracy are never in opposition to one another. The only difference is that in democracy one is serving a group rather than one man. We must be loyal to the group to which we belong. A new interpretation of loyalty is imperatively needed to-day.

Jesus said, "Henceforth I call you not servants, for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth. But I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard from the Father I have made known unto you" (John 15:15). The relation between teachers and pupils in Japan is a very unhappy one. Teachers do not trust pupils and pupils do not trust teachers. And the teachers think that they lose their dignity if they become intimate with their pupils. I think the best relation between teachers and pupils is that of friends. Japanese teachers need to learn to respect the pupils more. They must pay their respects to the budding sprout which is growing up from within the children.

Jesus called His disciples friends. When they came and said, "Lord, teach us to pray," (Luke 11:1) He prayed at once. Also, to respond to the request of the disciples, He completely revealed the secret principles of God. This brotherliness is a feature of schools in America and England, but in Japan there is always class feeling hanging about the educational relationships, and it is very hard to have the feeling of friendship. It is this which lies at the bottom of the frequent strikes in schools. In Japan, students' strikes preceded those of laborers. Lately, even girl students strike. But such things never happen in England or America. How can they strike when the teachers and the students are friends?

When Jesus was educating His disciples, He laid stress mainly upon the individual. True and complete education cannot be given unless it is individual. How can one really educate without enough knowledge of the character of the individual pupils? No matter how many thousands and millions of pupils you have, it is useless if they all go to waste. It is hard to have real training in large classes. At Cambridge and Oxford they mostly study in small groups under tutors. If a teacher has personal contact with individual students, the latter will become immovable in character. Anyone who can hold on to even only twelve friends is a very great man.

I always recall Tagore's school. His education is very primitive in that about fifty bare-footed pupils receive his teaching under bo trees. I think that by comparison with such primitive methods of training we can find some deficiency in the education of to-day. You cannot study true entomology with specimens of dead insects. Tagore's method, which gives free education in the woods, certainly suggests to us a new way of education. The general school education of to-day is all sight-education and contains no training of the will. Only the poor little children's eyes bulge out and read books; all other parts of the educational process are neglected. After they finish school they do not know how to help people or be kind to people. There are none more selfish, worse mannered, and none more pessimistic than students in Japan to-day. This is certainly a result of the defects of modern education.

How did Jesus educate His few disciples? When we read chapters ten and twelve of the Gospel according to Luke we see that Jesus, who spoke to the multitude, at the same time spoke specially to an inner circle. Sometimes He paid special attention to the disciples and spoke to them in secret. Sometimes one of the disciples had a conversation with Jesus. But the best examples of Jesus' education of individuals are shown in the relation of Jesus to His disciples as described in the Gospel of John.

The Gospel of John is from beginning to end a record of the relations between Jesus and His disciples. It is for this reason that John's Gospel, which is called the most religious of the four Gospels, appeals to us so strongly. The three most famous books of dialogue in the world are John's Gospel, the Analects of Confucius (that is, the discussions between Confucius and his disciples), and the Dialogue of Plato. All these three are books of dialogue between a few people and their teacher.

The book of Plato is specially interesting because it is dramatic. The main character on the stage is Socrates. Socrates seen through the eyes of Plato. Famous even among these famous dialogues is the conversation between Plato and Cliton. Here it is written that Socrates stops in his path and kindly answers the questions his disciples ask of him. But sometimes when they ask him questions too tediously, Socrates scolds them without mercy.

Jesus' attitude toward His disciples was different. He was very genial and kind to even a few disciples. The best religious feeling is generated where ten or twelve people live together helping one another.

In the first chapter [of John] the first interviews between Jesus and His disciples are described. John and Andrew followed Jesus. Jesus turned around and asked them, "What do you want?" A pseudo-great teacher might have pretended not to know they were following him. It was about four o'clock in the afternoon. When these two men asked Jesus, "Rabbi, where dwellest thou to-night?" Jesus said, "Come and see." And the two abode with Him that night. It was very simple and to the point.

The co-operative life of Jesus and His disciples began with this. You cannot taste the religious life unless you come to this. If you live in a grand house, it is hard to say "Come and see" in such a simple way. Probably Jesus lived a very simple life in a tent; and so He could say without any anxiety, "Come and see! May we not sleep together to-night!" The precious element in religious life is that the hearts of people burst into flame and unite together when possessed by a common interest.

Where two or three people are drawn together in the name of Jesus there springs up a different feeling. If even two or three Christians come together, they will possess some power of fermentation.

In 1808, a few students studying in Williams College - Mills, Richard, Rice, and Hall - came together and prayed under a haystack near the campus. This became the starting-point of the world-evangelization crusade from America.

In Germany Phillip, Jacob, and Spener met with three friends - Franke, Chard, and Anton, and began a movement. This was the origin of the Pietists, which afterward led to the Moravian Movement. Count Zinzendorf joined the Moravians and organized a village called Herrnhut. Wesley visited this village and was greatly influenced. And so with Whitefield he began a religious movement which stirred the whole of England. This Wesleyan movement penetrated far-away America, and again its influence reached Japan. Therefore no matter how few our numbers are, we need not be discouraged. If we really gather in the name of Jesus, Christianity will certainly triumph in Japan.

Jesus did not have any school in which to teach His disciples. In Mark's Gospel it is written eight times that Jesus taught inside a house. In some places it is written that His disciples questioned Him in the house about what they could not understand in Jesus' public preaching; and sometimes Jesus retired from the crowd and devoted Himself to educating His disciples. I want to call this quiet conversation of Jesus with His disciples in a room the Theological Seminary at Capernaum, because probably it was mainly in Peter's house in Capernaum.

In Greece there was what was called the peripatetic school. Jesus had something like this. Instead of having a special school building, He took His disciples to the mountains, to the beach, and to the park very frequently, and taught them while they were walking in the fields and mountains. He taught them at times at the River Jordan, sometimes on the road to Caesarea Philippi, sometimes with sermons on the beach, sometimes on the top of the Mount of Olives, sometimes from His own experience in the desert, sometimes on the sea, and sometimes by transfiguration on the summit of a mountain.

Jesus was not a second-rate teacher. His acumen was marvelous. He always prepared carefully to teach His disciples. He realized their need. He said to His beloved disciple, Peter, in a time of stress, "I am praying for you that you may not stumble."

Moreover, Jesus' school is a school of love. Modern schools teach us knowledge but not love. Jesus taught how to love people and how to serve the community. When the brother of a woman-disciple died, He specially visited her, and shed tears. The Jews, seeing Him weep, said, "See how He loved him"! (John 11:36).

Three great modern educators are Pestalozzi, Froebel, and Montessori, and they have all taught love. In Pestalozzi's Leonard and Gertrude there is a beautiful story of a couple of stone-cutters who teach love to their children and spread it to the neighbors. In Froebel-kindergartens they never use the word "dead." They teach the children that even when a single ant has died, it is sleeping.

But how about Japanese education at present? In the primary schools they teach brutal stories about So-and-so who cut off the head of somebody else. In the Middle Schools, when the children enter their third year, they are taught to carry a gun on their shoulders and have military drill. I wonder whether in the universities they teach a man how to make excuses when he kills another man! Is it not university professors who teach Machiavelli-ism, Treitschke-ism, class struggle, profit-making, and robbery? The higher the education the more it degenerates. How fine it would be if the university were a place in which to learn how to love human beings even as much as one likes insects!

Jesus loved each of His disciples. And also He often made jokes. Luther was a great joker, and Wesley, too, often used humor. For Jesus to say "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God" (Matt. 19:24) was certainly a piece of humor. And again, Jesus gave the disciples nicknames. In Samaria, James and John got angry at the unsympathetic attitude of the Samaritans, and said, "Lord, wilt Thou that we command fire to come down from heaven and consume them, even as Elias did?" (Luke 9:54) Probably it was on this account that Jesus called these two disciples Boanerges (sons of thunder).

Also Judas, the brother of James, had a nickname of Thaddeus, which meant "Faithful" or "Courageous." To Simon, Jesus gave the name of Cephas [the Rock]. These nicknames are a proof that Jesus used humor to some extent, and understood very well the character of His disciples.

Jesus had an insight into the good points of His disciples' personalities. When Nathaniel was struggling in his soul under a fig-tree, He said to him, "You are an honest man indeed!" (John 1:47) and He praised Nathaniel's sincerity. To Peter He said, "You are a rock. Build up the Church upon your faith." (Matt. 16:18)

Although it was quite true, as Paul said of the Early Church, that "not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, were called," (1 Cor. 1:26) nevertheless from among these seeming nonentities there was originated a Christian movement which moved the world. It is not necessary to be intellectual, nor to practice self-mortification by going to the mountains or to the sea.

Jesus' religion is contained in the experience of the God of Action. "He that loveth not knoweth not God: for God is Love." (1 John 4:8) Whoever lacks love lacks religious feeling. We must love people before we argue with them. In that loving, God Himself will be revealed.

A blind man came to see Mr. Juji Ishii, the Christian philanthropist. He was illiterate and could not read anything, but he asked Mr. Ishii to let him learn Christianity. Mr. Ishii said to him, "If, when you practice massage, and are paid for it, you give that money to the blind men poorer than yourself, then you will see God." So then this blind man, practicing massage every evening in Okayama City, used to go after one o'clock in the morning to the place where many blind men came together after their work, and put 2-sen pieces secretly into the long kimono sleeves of the poorest. He continued this every night, and gradually the heart of this man with sightless eyes was opened. After two weeks he came again to Mr. Ishii and said, "Teacher, I have come to understand. God is Love." This man learned to know God by himself by loving men.

God, who is unintelligible when thought of in a room or a library, will become known when one loves people. Therefore if you gaze at Jesus, who loved people and loved His disciples, you will know God. Ritschl said, "God is One who has an appearance like that of Christ." If we watch Jesus with love and devotion, we will experience a revelation of God.

I wish every one would enter this school - Jesus' School of Love - the school of freely loving all the people in the world. Jesus Christ is the greatest educator in the world - a teacher of love.

I am not using mere words - empty talk - I am making every effort to live a life like that of Jesus Christ. To imitate Jesus and follow in His footsteps is Christianity.

One snowy morning a factory worker stopped to drink at a bar on his way to his work. At the moment that he was opening the door, he turned back and was greatly surprised to see his little son behind him, following in the very prints of his feet. It is said that after that he absolutely stopped drinking. Just the opposite from this, if we are always imitating Jesus, our life will certainly, some time or other, be lifted up to high levels. And we shall find ourselves unconsciously becoming sons of devotion. I want to live my whole life soaked in the atmosphere of the piety of John and Jesus. The Way of Jesus is the Way of God, of the Cross, and of the Holy Spirit.

In modern life on this earth, Love is all dried up like a dry desert. But we want to restore once more a World of Light, Freedom, and Love, saturated with the power of the Grace and Love of Jesus, which is like the soft rain of Spring.

Chapter 5 of "The Religion of Jesus" by Toyohiko Kagawa, translated by Helen F. Topping, London, 1931

Toyohiko Kagawa, "The Religion of Jesus":
Chapter 1. The Knowledge of God
Chapter 2. Jesus and Men's Failures
Chapter 3. Jesus and Prayer
Chapter 4. The Death of Jesus - Its Before and After
Chapter 5. The Relation of Jesus to His Disciples

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