|Who Were the Germans?|
|Today, many are confused regarding the word "German" as commonly used in history books. Modern Germans have never referred to themselves as "Germans." They call themselves Deutsch-and their country, Deutschland. Spanish-speaking peoples today call Germany by the name Alemania. There are two French words for "German." One is Allemand, which, according to the authoritative French dictionary, Le Petit Robert, is derived from the Latin word Alamanni, a people who were part of the confederation of German peoples (p. 50). The other word is Germain, from the Latin word Germanus. The French dictionary offers a possible etymological sense (descriptive, literal meaning from root word origins) of "born of the same father and mother" or "of the same blood" (p. 862). When the Norman French conquered England in 1066 A.D., a whole host of French words entered into Anglo-Saxon-Celtic usage, which in this case is easily seen.
The first-mentioned "Germans" were actually a Celtic tribe, which had formerly lived east of the Rhine River. Notice what the Encyclopaedia Britannica says: "Of the Gaulish [Celtic] tribes west of the Rhine... the Treveri claimed to be of German origin, and the same claim was made by a number of tribes in Belgium.... The meaning of this claim is not quite clear, as there is some obscurity concerning the origin of the name Germani. It appears to be a Gaulish term, and there is no evidence that it was ever used by the Germans themselves. According to Tacitus it was first applied to the Tungri, whereas Caesar records that four Belgic tribes... were collectively known as Germani.
"There is no doubt that these tribes were all linguistically Celtic, and it is now the prevailing opinion that they were not of German origin ethnologically, but that their claim had come from over the Rhine (Caesar de Bellico Gallico ii 4). It would therefore seem that the name Germani originally denoted certain Celtic tribes to the east of the Rhine" ("Germany," 11th ed., p. 830). According to Kephart's Races of Mankind, the word "German" simply means "warrior" (p. 380)-i.e. Guerre-man = "war man." Therefore, it is fairly easy to see how later warlike invaders of this same territory-the northern Teutonic or Scythian peoples as well as the modern Germans-could have easily been referred to as "Germans.--
This also explains how some Germans have been labeled as Celts. Notice this description of the Celts in the Britannica: "The ancient writers regarded as homogeneous all the fair-haired peoples dwelling north of the Alps, the Greeks terming them all Keltoi. [The Romans called the same Celtic peoples Galli or Gauls.] Physically they fall into two loosely-divided groups, which shade off into each other. The first of these is restricted to northwestern Europe, having its chief seat in Scandinavia. It is distinguished by a long head, a long face, a narrow aquiline nose, blue eyes, very light hair and great stature....
"The other group is marked by a round head, a broad face, a nose often rather broad and heavy, hazel-gray eyes, light chestnut hair; they are thick-set and of medium height. This race is often termed Celtic or ALPINE from the fact of its occurrence all along the great mountain chain.... It thus stands MIDWAY not only geographically but also in physical features BETWEEN the Teutonic type of Scandinavian and the so-called [olive-complexioned] Mediterranean race with its long head, long face, its rather broad nose, dark brown or black hair, dark eyes, and slender form of medium height" ("Celt," 11th ed., vol. 5). Though the "Alpine" group contains some truly Celtic people (as not all Celts are tall and fair-haired), the majority of the Alpine people are actually true Germans. Notice that they are a completely different stock of people from the Northwest European types mentioned first.
How do we know that the Germans should be identified with this "Alpine" people? Madison Grant, in The Passing of the Great Race (1916) writes that "from the time of the 30 Years War [ended 1648], the purely Teutonic race in Germany has been largely replaced by the ALPINE types in the south and by the Wendish [Slavic] and Polish types in the east. This change of race in Germany has gone so far that it has been computed that out of 70,000,000 inhabitants of the German Empire [at the time], only 9,000,000 are purely Teutonic in color, stature, and skull characters" (p. 185).
Fleure, in The Peoples of Europe, says that "the dominant broad-headedness of the Alpine" race has spread over most of modern Germany (p. 42). It is simply indisputable that this is the modern type of German today.
of the Steppes
|It is helpful to note that anyone who lived in the vast region of Scythia (beyond the limits of the Greco-Roman world) was looked upon as a "Scythian"-a term which incorrectly came to be synonymous with "barbarian" from the perspective of Greek and Roman writers. Actually, the Scythian tribes had a well-developed, though nomadic, way of life. These nomads dwelled mainly in tents or wagons. They raised some crops, but their main talent was in tending livestock: cattle, sheep, goats and especially horses!
The Scythians were acknowledged to have been the best horsemen of their day, and no cavalrymen could match their skill in fighting. In about 512 B.C., Darius the Great tried to subdue them north of the Danube River and the Black Sea, but he failed. On numerous occasions the Scythians defeated the powerful armies of their enemies--the Assyrians, Persians and Romans. In fact, it was some of the hard-riding, violence-loving Scythian tribes which later laid in the dust the might and glory of Rome!
Archaeological evidence and historical records reveal that the Scythians were fair-skinned peoples closely akin to, if not identical to, today's northwestern Europeans! In fact, archaeologists have discovered burial mounds containing the frozen bodies of Scythian chieftains and their retainers. "The chieftains were exceptionally tall and strong and... racially the Altai [a Scythian tribe] were predominantly [of] European type.... At least one man had black wavy hair and one woman a luxuriant soft pile of dark chestnut tresses. A silver and gilt amphora [vase] discovered in 1862 in a grave at a site called Chertomlyk, also on the Dnieper, bears in relief on its gleaming surface a group of Scythians who could be American wranglers: one is roping a shaggy-maned steed, another is removing hobbles from a saddled horse.... The Budini [another Scythian tribe, were] a powerful people with bright red hair and deep blue eyes.... Sometimes the Scythians prepared a sort of haggis [a Scottish dish] by boiling the flesh of a cow in its own skin.
"They were in all respects a passionate people-bearded men with dark, deep-set eyes, weather-cured faces and long wind-snarled hair. They drank from the skulls of slain enemies and flaunted the scalps of their foes as trophies. In a time when nations had not yet developed skilled cavalrymen and relied almost entirely on foot soldiers and chariots, the Scythians came riding at the gallop, shooting fusillades of singing arrows from their bows.
"Herodotus also reported that the Scythians liked to get high from marijuana! 'In order to cleanse their bodies, the men make a booth by fixing in the ground three sticks inclined toward one another, and stretching around them woolen felts; inside the booth a dish is placed on the ground, into which they put a number of red-hot stones, and then add some hemp seed. Immediately it gives out such a vapor as no Greek vapor bath can exceed'" (Frank Trippet, The First Horsemen, Time-Life Books, New York, 1974, pp. 9, 18, 105-106, 112, 122). So the ancient Scythians not only looked like most of our American and British peoples (and others of northwestern European descent) today, they even appear to have passed on some of their terrible habits to our modern peoples-their descendants.
|"The first inhabitabts [of England] were Britons, who came from Armenia."
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (c. 891 A.D.)
|Fascinating Racial Roots!|
|All peoples on earth today have descended from Noah's three sons-Shem, Ham and Japheth-as recorded in Genesis 10. (NOTE: By comparing the known geographic origins of the major racial groups with the ancient locations of the biblically listed descendants of Noah's sons, it is possible to determine which son of Noah fathered which major race.) Ham is the father of the Negroids-the dark-skinned peoples who inhabited Africa, India, and, anciently, certain eastern Mediterranean countries like Canaan. Japheth is the father of the Mongoloids-the yellow and brown peoples of Asia and the native Indian tribes of North, Central and South America. Many of the olive-skinned peoples who inhabited the countries of the northern rim of the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. Greeks) are also descendants of Japheth and his sons. Shem is the father of the Caucasoids-the fair-skinned blonds, red-heads and brunets who are often called the "white" peoples. So the Anglo-Saxon-Celts must have descended from Shem. This makes absolutely perfect sense when you realize that the very name of the Caucasian race is derived from the CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS-the area we've been reading so much about!
Some, though, have argued that Shem's descendants-including Abraham's descendants (Gen. 11:21-32)-are not white. Yet the Bible clearly describes Abraham and Sarah's descendants as "fair" (Heb. yapheh--Gen. 12:11; 24:16; 26:7; Esther 2:7 KJV). As a youth, King David (a Jew) was "ruddy and of a fair countenance" (1 Sam. 17:42 KJV). Such words could never be used to describe either Hamites or Japhethites. "Ruddy: red; reddish; of the colour of healthy skin in white-skinned peoples" (Chambers Concise Dictionary, 1988, p. 932). Israel's Nazarites are described as being "purer than snow, they were whiter than milk, they were more ruddy in body than rubies" (Lam. 4:7 KJV). What peoples might have "ruby-red cheeks"? These are words that could never apply to darker-skinned peoples. Black, brown, yellow or even olive-skinned Mediterranean-type people could never be called "ruddy in body."
What color are the majority of today's ethnic Jews--many of whom live in Russia or New York City? White! Many of them could easily pass for British, Scandinavian or other Nordic European types. Notice this quote by Huxley and Haddon in We Europeans, concerning the few Nordic type people in Germany: "Hence their physique... is identical: fierce blue eyes, red hair (rutilae comae), tall frames.... It may be noted that red hair is rare among modern Germans, save among those of Jewish origin" (p. 36)!
Though some of Shem's descendants are darker because of their intermarriage with darker-skinned peoples, still, it is almost exclusively among the descendants of Shem-such as the Israelites-that we find light-skinned brunets, red-heads and blonds. Therefore the Celts and Scythian Anglo-Saxons must be descendants of Shem! Another indication of this descent is found in the following quote: "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons [b. 849 A.D.] was... the son [descendant] of Sem [Shem]" (Church Historians of England, vol. 2, p. 443). Notice also: "So the Anglo-Saxons may well have had records of the ancestry of their kings, beginning with Sceaf... and calling Sceaf the son of Noe, born in the Ark, or even identifying him with the Patriarch Shem" (Haigh, Conquest of Britain by the Saxons, p. 115).
Nothing here implies that one skin color is somehow better than another. They are just different! God loves all peoples. He is Creator of the many genetic differences among the races-including all the various shades and hues of skin.
|Hard, Physical Evidence!|
Is there any archaeological evidence of Israelites migrating up through the Caucasus and around the northern side of the Black Sea? Yes!
Authentic gravestones have been found in the region of the Crimea (or Krim--named after the Cimmerians), north of the Black Sea, bearing Hebrew inscriptions. Three of note were referred to by J.W. Bosanquet in his article, "Synchronous History," published in the 1873 Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, volume 2. One reads, "This is the tombstone of Buki, the son of Izchak, the priest; may his rest be in Eden, at the time of the salvation of Israel. In the year 702 of the years of our Exile." The second states, "Rabbi Moses Levi died in the year 726 of our Exile." And the third says, "Zadok, the Levite, son of Moses, died 4000 after the creation, 785 of our exile."
Counting from an eighth century B.C. captivity, the years just mentioned indicate that these people died around the beginning of the Christian Era. Bosanquet says that, according to Neubauer's History of the Crimean Tombs (p. 29), the Israelites there claimed "to be descended from the Ten Tribes." So, many descendants of those Israelites who were deported to Assyria still lived north of the Black Sea at this time.
How these people had gotten there is recorded in an amazing epigraph found on another tombstone in this same region. Here is C. Coffin's translation of A.E. Harkavy's German version (published in Academia Scientiarum Imperialis Memoires, St. Petersburg, vol. 24, no. 1, 1863, p. 9):
I Jehuda ben Mose ha-Nagolon of the East country, ben Jehuda ha-Gibbor of the tribe of Naphtali, of the generation Schillem, who went into the exile with the exiles, who were driven away with Hosea, the king of Israel, together with the tribes of Simeon and Dan and some of the generations of the other tribes of Israel, which (all) were led into exile by the enemy Shalmanesser from Schomron [Samaria] and their cities to Chalach [Halah], that is, Backack and to Chabar [Habor], that is, Chabul and to Hara, that is, Herat, and to Gosan [Gozan], the cities of the exiled tribes of Reuben, Gad and the half of Manasseh, which Pilneser [Tiglath-Pileser] drove into exile and settled there (and from there they scattered themselves over the whole land of the East as far as Sinim)--when I returned from wandering in the land of their exile and from journeying in the dwelling places of the descendants of their generations in their resting places of the Land of Krim [the Crimea].
This, of course, confirms everything we have already seen about the journeyings of the northern Ten Tribes following their captivity. It is remarkable historical evidence that they passed through the Crimea en route to Northwest Europe!
|Israelite Migrations to New Lands!|
Originally written by Raymond F. McNair and republished in 1996 by the now-defunct Global Church of God.
|Why this matters ...|
|Arguing forward...||Arguing backward...|
(a) Does God keep His promises?
(b) Were any promises of physical blessings made to the Biblical patriarchs?
(c) Is anyone alive today (regardless of ethnicity, race, language, geographical location, ...) the recipient of promises of physical blessings made to the patriarchs?
(d) If someone is a recipient, are there special responsibilities that go along with those blessings?
(e) If there are special responsibilities, then do we need to discover if we are the ones with those special responsibilities?
(f) If we are the ones with those special responsibilities, should we perform them?
(g) Get to it! Perform those special responsibilities!
(a) As a nation (of all kinds of ethnicities, races, languages, ...), do we have more than our share of physical blessings?
(b) Does God gives us these blessings?
(c) Does God have a reason for giving us these blessings?
(d) Is any part of the reason the promises of physical blessings given to the Biblical patriarchs?
(e) Do God's blessings also come with special responsibilities for those blessed?
(f) Do we have special responsibilities?
(g) Let's get to it! Let's perform those special responsibilities!
In 1840, Wilson concluded that the British Empire was blessed as a result of the promises to the patriarchs, and so had a responsibility to set a Christian example, and evangelize, the whole world. He warned that if the British Empire did not do this, its future was bleak.
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