"Jesus rose at dawn, loving you!"
so sing the Statler Brothers.
Certainly Jesus loves us!
But when did Jesus really rise?
When was Jesus buried? At or just after sunset.
(a) He was removed from Cross on "Preparation day" before "High Day" Sabbath. (John 19:31).
(b) He was buried later than "when even was come" (Matt. 27:57, Mark 15:42)
(c) He was buried as "the Sabbath drew on" (Luke 23:54)
From: The Anchor Bible: Matthew, 1971, W. F. Albright & C. S. Mann. New York: Doubleday.
Matt. 28:1. "After the sabbath" (Gr. opse de sabbaton). We must remember that the sabbath ended at sunset on Saturday. This phrase appears to be parallel to Mark's diagenomenou tou sabbatou ("the Sabbath having passed"), but Mark then goes on to describe something which happened on the evening after the sabbath (Mark 16:1) which Matthew does not record. It is hard to understand the opening phrase in this verse [Matt. 28:1] as meaning other than "as the sabbath ended," or "when it had ended." In context Matthew goes on to describe events which belong in all the traditions to Sunday morning. Thus, the next clause "towards dawn" must be understood as meaning "when the sabbath had already passed into the next day." The proliferation of recent studies on the calendar, both sectarian and orthodox, prompts us to add a note of caution here. The Greek phrase which we have translated "the first day of the week" and which is found in all four gospels (mia sabbatou or mia ton sabbaton) is not as obvious an indication of a particular "day" of a "week" as the English suggests. By the time we reach the Didache [150 A.D.?] the plural sabbata certainly meant "week," and the enumeration of the days certainly makes Sunday the "first day" of the week; cf. Didache 6. But the notes of time in our gospels concerning the resurrection, together with the confused chronology of Holy Week, make it hazardous to say with any confidence whether the evangelists wished us to understand Saturday or Sunday at this point. (p. 358)
When was Jesus resurrected? Pre-dawn at latest!!
Before or at the same time as the stone was rolled away.
(a) "The first day of the week .. when it was yet dark" (John 20:1)
(b) "Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, ... they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre." (Luke 24:1-2)
(c) "And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.... they saw that the stone was rolled away: (Mark 16:2-4)
(d) "In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week ... the angel of the Lord ... rolled back the stone from the door. (Matt. 28:1-2)
Note: The stone was rolled back to allow people to look in, not to let Jesus out!
What had happened in between?
(a) On the "next day" after the Crucifixion, a guard was set for three days: (Matt. 27:62-66)
(b) "And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him." (Mark 16:1)
(c) The women "prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment." (Luke 23:56)
The Third Day
Matthew 16:21 From that time forth began Jesus to show unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.
Matt. 17:23, 20:19; Mark 9:31, 10:34; Luke 9:22, 13:32, 18:33, 24:7, 24:46; Acts 10:40,
1 Cor. 15:4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:
In Three Days
John 2:19 Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. Matt. 26:61, 27:40; Mark 15:29; John 2:20
Within Three Days
Mark 14:58 We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within [Gk. during] three days I will build another made without hands.
After Three Days
Mark 8:31 And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. Matt. 27:63
Three Days and Three Nights
Matthew 12:40 For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
After the fact on the 1st day of the week:
Luke 24:21 But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.
Which things? The setting of the guard??
|The actual times of Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection are not universally agreed on either. "I personally believe he was crucified on Wednesday evening ... and rose after 6 p.m. Saturday evening," [Jerry Falwell, chancellor of Liberty University in Virginia,] tells WorldNetDaily [10/13/2001]. "Others believe he died on Friday ... But the point is, he did rise on Sunday, which, in Jewish tradition, started the evening before at 6 p.m."|
Conclusion for all these to be true at once:
Jesus must indeed be exactly 3 days & 3 nights "in the heart of the earth".
"Heart of the earth" parallels "midst of the seas" in Jonah 2:3. The Hebrew word for "midst" lebab comes from the word for "heart" labab. So "heart of the earth" implies the same relationship to the earth as Jonah had to the sea, i.e., submerged (buried) in it. A parallel which Paul uses of the waters of baptism: "buried with him in baptism" (Col. 2:12). A different Hebrew word for "midst" qereb is used in Isa. 5:8 "placed alone in the midst of the earth", which means "you alone will live in the land" (GNB).
Time Schedule: Traditional: at longest: 3 days and 2 nights:
Burial: "Good Friday before sunset"
Resurrection: "Easter at Sunrise:"
Days: Friday, Saturday, Sunday
Nights: Friday night, Saturday night
Time schedule: Scriptural: 3 days and 3 nights
Crucifixion: Wednesday: Burial: at sunset
1st day ULB (Sabbath): Thursday
Weekly Sabbath: Saturday
Resurrection: Sunset at end of Saturday
Stone rolls back, "1st Day" before dawn.
Days: Thursday, Friday, Saturday
Nights: Wednesday night, Thursday night, Friday night.
|Christ in the Grave|
|Day of Week and Month
Days begin at sunset
Weeks begin on "Sunday"
|3, Tuesday, Nisan 13||"Where prepare the Passover?", First day of Unleavened Bread (see below)|
|3 ends, 4 begins||Last Supper with the disciples|
|4, Wednesday, Nisan 14||"Preparation day for High Day Sabbath" - Jesus crucified|
|4 ends, 5 begins||0||0||"At sunset" at start of High-Day Sabbath - Jesus buried|
|5, Thursday, Nisan 15||1 passed||1 now||"On day after preparation day" = High-Day Sabbath (First Day of Unleavened Bread)
Guard set: 1st guard day
|6, Friday||2 passed||2 now||"On day after Sabbath" - spices bought
2nd guard day
|7, Saturday, Nisan 16||3 passed||3 now||"(Weekly) Sabbath after spices prepared" - women rest
3rd guard day
|7 end, 1 begins||3 passed||3 passed||Jesus resurrected at Sunset (on 3rd day, after 3 days, "3 days & 3 nights")|
|1, Sunday, Nisan 17||4 now||3 passed||"Early on first day of week" - pre-dawn visit to tomb
stone rolled away
3rd guard day & night almost completed
The First Day of Unleavened Bread. In Leviticus 23 this was Nisan 15, but in New Testament times, this was the first day of the feast season, not the first day of the feast itself. Here is how this works: The Passover is killed on Nisan 14. The Feast of Unleavened Bread is Nisan 15-21. In popular usage the whole period of time is sometimes called "the Passover (season)" and sometimes called "the Days of Unleavened Bread." But, people usually removed leavened bread from their homes a few days before the official Feast, so again in popular usage, the "Feast of Unleavened Bread" started about Nisan 13.